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Các cấu trúc câu so sánh trong cả 2 phần IELTS Writing Task 1 & 2

Bài viết này sẽ giới thiệu tới các bạn các cấu trúc so sánh mà bạn sẽ áp dụng được trong cả 2 phần thi viết trong đề thi IELTS. Các cấu trúc được phân loại theo: so sánh qua nhiều câu văn; so sánh bên trong câu văn và so sánh thông qua các từ vựng so sánh. 

1. So sánh giữa các câu văn

  • In contrast

The most popular form of holiday among the Welsh was self-catering with over 60% choosing to cook for themselves. In contrast, only 5 % of the English chose this form of vacation and hotel accommodation was much more popular at 48%.

  • In comparison

Almost 50% of the English, Scots and Northern Irish chose to stay in a hotel for their holiday. In comparison, staying in self-catering accommodation was much less popular with around 10% of people choosing this.

  • However

The general pattern was for hotel accommodation to be the most popular with around half the people choosing it. The majority of the Welsh, however, chose to stay in self-catering accommodation.

  • On the other hand

It is clear that a majority of the British chose to stay in hotel for their holiday. On the other hand, there was an exception to this because over 50%  of the Welsh opted for self-catering accommodation.

 

2. So sánh bên trong câu văn

Dạng câu thông dụng

  • while

While there are 4 million miles of train lines in the UK, there are only 3 million in France.

  • whereas

Whereas the majority of the French prefer to travel to work by train, only a small minority of the British do.

  • although

Although 15% of the French read novels, only 5% of the British do.

  • but

Almost 25% of French females study maths with a private tutor, but nearly 60% study English with one.

 

Dạng câu phân loại theo biểu đồ đường (ý 1) và biểu đồ khác (ý 2)

a. As / While A verb, B verb (at the same time). [linking words]

  • While the number of factories in Taiwan increased dramatically to 100,000 in 2006, the quantity in Japan plummeted to 1,000 at the same time.
  • As the number of females in full-time work stood at 300 in 2014, the amount of working males stood at 500.

b. In comparison to A, which verb, B verb. [relative clauses]

  • In comparison to the number of factories in Taiwan, which saw an increase to 100,000 in 2006, the quantity in Japan plummeted to 1,000 at this time.
  • In comparison to the number of females in full-time work, which stood at 300 in 2014, the amount of working males stood at 500.

c. A verb, v-ing, (which verb). [adjective clause + relative clause]

  • The number of factories in Taiwan saw an increase to 100,000 in 2006, exceeding the quantity in Japan, which had only 1,000.
  • The number of males in full-time work reached 500 in 2014, exhibiting a higher number than all the other categories provided.

d. Clause, followed by + Noun Phrase

  • There was a dramatic growth in the number of factories in Japan to 120.000 in 2010, followed by a sharp decrease to 1,000 in 2015.

e. Clause, prior to/before  Verb-ing

  • The number of factories in Japan experienced an increase to 120,000 in 2010, before hitting a free fall to 1,000 in 2015.

f. Clause, after Verb – ing

  • The figure for factories in Japan hit a free fall to 1,000 in 2o15, after undergoing an increase to 120,000 in 2010.

 

3. Sử dụng các từ vựng và cấu trúc so sánh

 

a. So sánh với more hoặc less/fewer

  • Than

5% more girls chose to read books than go to cinema.

  • Fewer/less

Fewer mobiles phones were bought in 2013 than 2014.

Less oil was consumed in 2013 than 2014.

 

b. So sánh xác thực với  much/far/slightly hoặc một con số cụ thể

Far fewer people chose to travel by train than by car. [Câu này chưa xác thực mức độ khác nhau]

25% fewer people chose to travel by train than by car. [Đây là cấu trúc câu tốt hơn vì có mức độ so sánh xác thực]

 

c. So sánh với most hoặc least/fewest

The most popular form of entertainment in the UK was going to the cinema.

The least common form of transport was taking a taxi.

 

d. So sánh với similar hoặc same hoặc as…..as

  • Similar (to)

The percentages of females and males who studied languages at university were very similar.

A similar amount of gas and electricity was used domestically in homes.

The figures for 2012 were very similar to the figures for 2013.

  • Same as …as

The percentage of females who studied at university in 2011 was almost exactly the same as in 2012

 

e. So sánh với differ/different/difference

The amount of time spent at home differed by almost 25% according to gender.

There was a difference of over 25% in the amount of time males and females spent at home.

This figure was very different among males, only half of whom watched television. 

f. So sánh với các con số

  • [5 million] more/less/fewer

5 million fewer units of gas were sold in 2014.

  • Twice 

Twice as many people elected to use gas and not electricity for cooking [note the twice as …as structure]

Twice the amount of gas was used for cooking in this period. [note that we amount with uncountable nouns]

  • Three/four etc times 

Four times as many people chose to heat their house with electricity as with gas.

  • Half

Half the number of people chose to use gas as electricity.

Electricity was half as popular as gas for cooking.

 

Thực hành 1:



Chọn các từ so sánh bên dưới điền vào đoạn văn:

as      difference      fewer      more      similar      smallest      than      twice      While   

1. ___________ the Japanese purchased nearly 50 million smart phones, the Canadians bought only just over 3 million.
2. Americans bought nearly 9 million___________
smart phones than tablets.
3.The Australians bought slightly more smart phones___________
the British did.
4. It is notable how the Australians bought___________ smart phones than tablets.
5. In contrast, Australians bought a___________ number of smart phones and tablets.
6.The Koreans bought exactly___________ as many smart phones as tablets.
7. The British bought the___________ number of tablets.
8. There was only a slight___________ in the number of smart phones and tablets bought by Canadians.
9. Canadians bought almost as many tablets___________ smart phones.

 

Thực hành 2:

The bar   chart   below shows   the different   types   of   accommodation   chosen   by   the  British when they went on holiday in 2012. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant

 

Những thông tin quan trọng:

  • hotels were the most common form of accommodation at over 50%
  • self-catering was second most popular (just below 30%) but there is one major exception
  • caravan and camping holidays were typically least popular (around 10%) but again there was an exception
  • England, Scotland and Wales follow a broadly similar pattern (Scotland is only slightly different)
  • the popularity of caravanning in Northern Ireland needs to be highlighted

Hai hướng tiếp cận phần trả lời:

  • go through each type of accommodation (the y axis option)
  • go through the countries (the x axis option)

 

Biên soạn: Ce Phan