1. Thể hiện từ vựng theo cách khác (Căn bản)
Có 5 cách diễn đạt khác nhau để nói về một từ vựng: 1) sử dụng từ vựng đơn giản hơn, 2) đồng nghĩa/ trí nghĩ, 3) so sánh tới những điều liên quan, 4) hãy nói nó KHÔNG phải là, và 5) đưa ra các câu ví dụ minh họa.
- snake: a living thing that is frightening
Câu trên chắn chắn không phải là cách paraphrasing tốt. Bởi vì có rất nhiều thứ rất đáng sợ chứ không riêng gì con rắn. Vậy làm thế nào để paraphrasing tốt hơn đây? Đặc điểm đầu tiên dễ dàng nhận thấy là con rắn thì dài (a snake is long), và nó không có chân (and it has no legs) và tại sao nó lại đáng sợ? Bởi vì khi nó căn chúng ta, chúng ra có thể bị bệnh thậm chí có thể chết! (We may get sick or die). Như vậy, từ snake có thể viết lại thành:
- snake: a long animal with no legs, and if it bites us, we may die!
Dưới đây là một vài ví dụ về các trường hợp paraphrasing chưa tốt
- fingers: part of our body, we use it to eat
- smile: we do this when we get a good score on the IELTS
- hungry: how we feel at 3 o'clock in the afternoon
Bạn nên sử dụng cách nói thay thế như bên dưới cho những từ vựng bên trên:
- fingers:part of your hand, you have five of them
- smile: you do it with your mouth to show you are happy, you turn it up
- Hungry: how we feel when we don't eat for a long time
Hãy thử thực hành với các từ vựng sau:
- banana: a long, sweet, yellow fruit that monkeys like to eat
- run: we do this with our feet when we are late or in a hurry, it is faster than 'walk'
- thirsty:how we feel when we don't drink, not 'hungry', we need some water
- software: part of your computer but not the machine, it tells the computer what to do, some examples are Windows, Word, Photo Shop, and email
2. Thể hiện câu theo cách khác (trung cấp)
Thể hiện câu văn theo cách khác là cách viết lại một câu văn cho trước theo lối viết và từ vựng của bạn. Khi bạn cần nói lại một câu nói của bạn (mục đích để nhấn mạnh, nhắc nhớ, lưu ý ...) bạn phải thể hiện câu văn đó theo cách khác. Điều này có nghĩa là, bạn sẽ nói cùng ý nhưng lại nói lại theo một cách khác. Hơn nữa, bạn còn cần phải phải sử dụng những từ vựng khác, ngữ pháp khác.
- Câu văn gốc: PayLess is closed because of the bad weather conditions.
- Cách viết lại chưa tốt: PayLess is closed because of the bad weather.
Cách viết trên có quá nhiều từ bị lặp lại, ví dụ như “PayLess is closed because of”. Điều quan trọng là phải sử dụng từ vựng khác, ngữ pháp khác nhưng vẫn giữ được ý nghĩa giống như câu văn gốc.
- Cách viết lại chuẩn mực: Since the weather is terrible, the grocery store is not open
Theo như cách viết trên, bạn dễ dàng nhận thấy câu văn đã sử dụng những từ vựng khác, cấu trúc văn phạm khác
Các ví dụ khác:
- Câu văn gốc:The student requested that the professor excuses her absence, but the professor refused.
- Viết lại: The professor denied the student’s request for an excused absence.
- Câu văn gốc:There will be a music concert next to Vienna coffee shop. Would you like to go?
- Viết lại: Are you coming to a music concert in Vienna?
- Câu văn gốc: International Center is hosting English Conversation classes. They help non-native speakers of English practice their English speaking skills.
- Viết lại: English non native speakers can improve their English by taking classes at International Center.
- Câu văn gốc: The office of International Students and Scholars (ISS) at Purdue University is located in Schleman Hall.
- Viết lại: Schleman Hall hosts the ISS office.
- Câu văn gốc: The car that was pulled over by the police officer yesterday just had an accident. That driver is not careful.
- Viết lại: The driver who was pulled over yesterday is not careful because he just had an accident.
3. Viết lại câu văn theo cách khác (nâng cao)
- Câu văn gốc:
Some argue that the approximately 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States ought to receive a path to US citizenship, while others claim that these immigrants need to be deported back to their home countries.
- Cách viết lại chưa tốt
Some say that the 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States ought to receive a way for citizenship, while other people say that the immigrants should go back to their countries.
Phần viết lại này gần giống như phần viết gốc. Rất nhiều từ vựng giống nhau và cấu trúc câu thì tương đồng. Việc xoá bớt đi vài chữ trong một đoạ văn không phải là cách viết lại tốt.
Although some individuals maintain that undocumented immigrants should go back to their countries, others defend these immigrants’ right for a path to citizenship.
- Cách viết lại chuẩn mực
Cách viết lại một câu văn phải khác cả về từ vựng lẫn ngữ pháp.
Các ví dụ khác:
- Đoạn văn gốc: "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990):17.
- Viết lại: According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in Antarctica is jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that controls the earth's climate. He fears that human activity could interfere with the balance between the sun, the source of the earth's heat, and the important source of cold from Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the oceans and atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17).
- Đoạn văn gốc: "The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else, America's break with the past." From Kathleen Yancey,English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.
- Viết lại: During the twenties, lawlessness and social nonconformity prevailed. In cities, organized crime flourished without police interference, and, in spite of nationwide prohibition of liquor sales, anyone who wished to buy a drink knew where to get one. Musicians like Louis Armstrong become favorites, particularly among young people, as many turned away from highly respectable classical music to jazz. One of the best examples of the anti-traditional trend was the proliferation of young "flappers," women who rebelled against custom by cutting off their hair and shortening their skirts (Yancey 25).
- Đoạn văn gốc: "Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head." From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports(May 1990): 348.
- Viết lại: The use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon impact, a helmet can reduce accidental injury by as much as 85%, saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are school children ("Bike Helmets" 348).
- Đoạn văn gốc: "Matisse is the best painter ever at putting the viewer at the scene. He's the most realistic of all modern artists, if you admit the feel of the breeze as necessary to a landscape and the smell of oranges as essential to a still life. "The Casbah Gate" depicts the well-known gateway Bab el Aassa, which pierces the southern wall of the city near the sultan's palace. With scrubby coats of ivory, aqua, blue, and rose delicately fenced by the liveliest gray outline in art history, Matisse gets the essence of a Tangier afternoon, including the subtle presence of the bowaab, the sentry who sits and surveys those who pass through the gate." From Peter Plagens, "Bright Lights." Newsweek (26 March 1990): 50.
- Viết lại: Matisse paintings are remarkable in giving the viewer the distinct sensory impressions of one experiencing the scene firsthand. For instance, "The Casbah Gate" takes one to the walled city of Tangier and the Bab el Aassa gateway near the Sultan's palace, where one can imagine standing on an afternoon, absorbing the splash of colors and the fine outlines. Even the sentry, the bowaab vaguely eyeing those who come and go through the gate, blends into the scene as though real (Plagens 50).
- Đoạn văn gốc: "While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building." From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.
- Viết lại: The Sears Tower is a world marvel, and it is unknown how much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise. However, the design of one twice as tall as the Sears Tower is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).
Bài tập thực hành: Hãy viết lại các đoạn văn bên dưới theo cách khác
- “In the United States, about six out of ten students in graduate schools are women. The same is true of today’s young adults who already have a degree beyond college. As a result, the Census Bureau expects that more women than men will hold professions such as doctors, lawyers and professors.” (Women Edge Past Men in Getting Doctorates, Voice of America, learningenglish.com)
- “The Human Relations Commission (HRC) was established by the City of West Lafayette to protect the rights of our citizens and to ensure that West Lafayette remains a fair and inclusive community.” (What is the Human Relations Commission?, City of West Lafayette Indiana, westlafayette.in.gov)
- “The years after World War One were an important turning point in the making of the American nation. The country turned away from the problems of Europe. Now it would deal with problems of its own.” (American History Series: The United States Turns Inward After World War One, Voice of America, learning English.voa.com)
Tác giả: Ce Phan