Tuần này Ce Phan biên soạn các bài tập thực hành cho chủ đề Tourism, Holidays và Vacations. Đây là bài tiếp theo trong số những bài học đã được đăng tải lên hệ thống học tiếng Anh Timeline Learning

Exercise 1: (test 3 in Cambridge IELTS book 10)

The travel industry includes: hotels, motels and other types of accommodation; restaurants and other food services; transportation services and facilities; amusements, attractions and other leisure facilities; gift shops and a large number of other enterprises. Since many of these businesses also serve local residents, the impact of spending by visitors can easily be overlooked or underestimated. In addition, Meis (1992) points out that the tourism industry involves concepts that have remained amorphous to both analysts and decision makers. Moreover, in all nations this problem has made it difficult for the industry to develop any type of reliable or credible tourism information base in order to estimate the contribution it makes to regional, national and global economies.

Are the two statements below true, false, or not given?

     1. Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas.

     2. It is easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies.

Extra task:
Can you explain the meaning of the phrase "the tourism industry involves concepts that have remained amorphous to both analysts and decision makers"?


Exercise 2:  (from Cambridge IELTS book 1)
For the first time, dictionary publishers are incorporating real, spoken English into their data. It gives lexicographers (people who write dictionaries) access to a more vibrant, up-to-date vernacular language which has never really been studied before. In one project, 150 volunteers each agreed to discreetly tie a Walkman recorder to their waist and leave it running for anything up to two weeks. Every conversation they had was recorded. When the data was collected, the length of tapes was 35 times the depth of the Atlantic Ocean. Teams of audio typists transcribed the tapes to produce a computerised database of ten million words.

3. Which paragraph heading would you chose, and why?

    a. New method of research

    b. The first study of spoken language


Exercise 3(Source: this article on qz.com)

Physicist Richard Feynman returned over and over to an idea that drove his groundbreaking discoveries. His approach was documented by his Caltech colleague David Goodstein in the book Feynman’s Lost Lecture about physics classes Feynman taught in the 1960s:

Once, I said to him, “Dick, explain to me, so that I can understand it, why spin one-half particles obey Fermi-Dirac statistics.” Sizing up his audience perfectly, Feynman said, “I’ll prepare a freshman lecture on it.” But he came back a few days later to say, “I couldn’t do it. I couldn’t reduce it to the freshman level. That means we don’t really understand it.”

Feynman didn’t mean all human knowledge must be distilled into an introductory college course. His point was that we need to build our grasp of science and technology from the ground up if we are to master it, not to mention reimagine how it works. Feynman was famous as a student for redoing many of physics’ early experiments himself to build a foundational understanding of the field. By mastering these first principles, Feynman often saw things that others did not in quantum mechanics, computing, and nuclear physics, earning him the Nobel Prize in 1965.

4. When asked to explain a difficult concept, physicist Richard Feynman

     A  immediately replied that he could not
     B  replied that he had already prepared a lecture on it
     C  said that he did not understand the concept either
     D  promised to give his answer in an introductory lesson

5. Feynman believed that

     A  scientists should master basic scientific principles first
     B  early physics experiments need to be redone
     C  most science students do not have a good foundation in physics
     D  his knowledge of first principles earned him a Nobel Prize


Exercise 4:  some recent photos of Mars (Source: independent.co.uk)

Nasa has released stunning photos of something like "Niagara falls" on Mars – except even more stunning than the one on Earth. The flows are made of flowing molten lava that once moved over the Red Planet's surface, and have been pictured in stunning new 3D images. The photos were sent back by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which was launched in 2005 and has been sending images back of the planet's surface since soon after that.

Nasa notes that a lot of time is spent wondering about and searching for proof of liquid water on Mars, which would be a signal of life. But the new pictures show that the planet itself was once far more alive than it is today – made up of flowing molten lava that spread across its surface.

Do the statements below agree with the views of the author of the article? Answer yes, no or not given.

   6. Lava flows on Mars are more beautiful than one of Earth’s most famous waterfalls.

   7. Nasa has just released the first ever 3D images of Mars.

   8. The new photographs prove that liquid may be present on Mars.

   9. The photos show that the surface of Mars is more active than ever.


Exercise 5(Source: bilingualbicultural.com)

Read the passage and complete the summary using words from the box below it.
NB You will not need to use all of the words.

Bilinguals and Personality

Many people believe that bilinguals have two different personalities, one for each of the languages they speak, and that switching between languages makes bilinguals act differently. Although this may seem unbelievable to some, research actually supports this idea.

According to various studies, bilinguals who are also bicultural and are actively involved in both of their cultures, interpret situations differently depending on which language they speak in. Although everyone, monolinguals and bilinguals alike, is able to change the way they feel and interpret events (a phenomenon known as frame-shifting), biculturals do this without realising when switching between languages.

The changes are not only linguistic. As an English-Spanish bicultural myself I do find I act differently depending on which culture I'm immersed in at the time. I'm often aware of the fact that when I speak to other Spanish speakers my voice is slightly louder and I gesticulate more than when I talk to English speakers. Could we then say that bilinguals have two different personalities?

Summary

There is some (10)_____ to show that people who are bilingual exhibit a different (11)_____ depending on which language they are speaking. Some bilinguals also have two (12)_____ cultural identities, meaning that they are able to (13)_____ their behaviour effortlessly according to their cultural (14)_____. This may involve changes in (15)_____ of speech or in the use of (16)_____ language.


Exericse 6: (Source: theguardian.commatch the headings

migrating birds

17) A tiny bird from the Farne Islands off Northumberland, England has clocked up the longest migration ever recorded. The Arctic tern’s meandering journey to Antarctica and back saw it clock up 59,650 miles, more than twice the circumference of the planet. The bird, which weighs just 100g, left its breeding grounds last July and flew down the west coast of Africa, rounded the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean and arrived in Antarctica in November. Its mammoth trek was recorded by a tiny device attached to its leg, weighing 0.7g - too light to affect its flight.

18) “It’s really quite humbling to see these tiny birds return when you consider the huge distances they’ve had to travel and how they’ve battled to survive,” said Richard Bevan at Newcastle University and part of the tracking team. The birds survive the vast journey by dipping down to the sea surface to catch fish and other food as they travel. “They live in the fast lane all the time, constantly on the move,” said Bevan. “They have to flap all the time. It is an incredibly energetic lifestyle.”

19) Like all migratory animals, the birds travel to take advantage of food that is available in particular seasons. Arctic terns perform the longest migrations but another bird, the bar-tailed godwit, completes its marathon from the Arctic to New Zealand in eight days straight, without stopping to feed. Whales undertake the longest mammal migrations and leatherback turtles and some dragonflies also travel over 9,321 miles.

 

Choose the best heading from the list below for each paragraph above.

     i      Migration and food
     ii     Survival of the fittest
     iii    A record-setting bird
     iv    Other incredible animal migrations
     v     A new device for tracking bird migrations
     vi    How do migrating Arctic terns manage such a feat?


Exercise 7: 'true, false, not given'

large and important cities

A ‘megacity’ is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. The terms conurbation, metropolis and metroplex are also applied to the latter. As of 2017, there are 37 megacities in existence. The largest of these are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Shanghai, each of these having a population of over 30 million inhabitants, with 38.8 million and 35.5 million respectively. Tokyo is the world's largest metropolitan area, while Shanghai has the world's largest city proper population. The UN predicts there will be 41 megacities by 2030.

By contrast, a ‘global city’, also called ‘world city’ or sometimes ‘alpha city’ or ‘world center’, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2016. The ranking is based on six overall categories: Economy, Research & Development, Cultural Interaction, Livability, Environment, and Accessibility. According to this particular ranking system, the top three ‘global cities’ at present are London, New York and Tokyo.

Are the statements below true, false or not given?

   20. The term ‘megacity’ refers to population size, whereas the term ‘global city’ is primarily used to denote economic importance.

   21. Currently there are 37 cities with a population of over 10 million people.

   22. London is classified as being both a megacity and a global city.


PRACTICE TEST

William Henry Perkin

The man who invented synthetic dyes

William Henry Perkin was born on March 12, 1838, in London, England. As a boy, Perkin’s curiosity prompted early interests in the arts, sciences. photography, and engineering. But it was a chance stumbling upon a run-down, yet functional, laboratory in his late grandfather's home that solidified the young man`s enthusiasm for chemistry.

As a student at the City of London School, Perkin became immersed in the study of chemistry. His talent and devotion to the subject were perceived by his teacher, Thomas Hall, who encouraged him to attend a series of lectures given by the eminent scientist Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution. Those speeches tired the young chemist`s enthusiasm further, and he later went on to attend the Royal College of Chemistry, which he succeeded in entering in 1853, at the age of 15.

At the time of Perkin’s enrollment,  the Royal College of Chemistry was headed by the noted German chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann. Perkin’s scientific gifts soon caught Hofmann’s attention and within two years, he became Hofmann’s youngest assistant. Not long after that, Perkin made the scientific breakthrough that would bring him both fame and fortune.

At the time, quinine was the only viable medical treatment for malaria. The drug ls derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, native to South America and by 1856 demand for the drug was surpassing the available supply. Thus, when Hofmann made some passing comments about the desirability of a synthetic substitute for quinine, it was unsurprising that his star pupil was moved to take up the challenge.

During his vacation in 1856, Perkin spent his time in the laboratory on the top floor of his family's house. He was attempting to manufacture quinine from aniline, an inexpensive and readily available coal tar waste product. Despite his best efforts, however, he did not end up with quinine. Instead, he produced a mysterious dark sludge. Luckily, Perkins scientific training and nature prompted him to investigate the substance further. Incorporating potassium dichromate and alcohol into the aniline at various stages of the experimental process, he finally produced a deep purple solution. And, proving the truth of the famous scientist Louis Pasteur's words 'chance favors only the prepared mind'. Perkin saw the potential of his unexpected find.

Historically, textile dyes were made from such natural sources as plants and animal excretions. Some of these, such as the glandular mucus of snails, were difficult to obtain and outrageously expensive. Indeed, the purple colour extracted from a snail was once so costly that in society at the time only the rich could afford it. Further, natural dyes tended to be muddy in hue and fade quickly. It was against this backdrop that Perkin‘s discovery was made.

Perkin quickly grasped that his purple solution could be used to colour fabric, thus making it the world’s first synthetic dye. Realising the importance of this breakthrough, he lost no time in patenting it. But perhaps the most fascinating of all Perkin`s reactions to his find was his nearly instant recognition that the new dye had commercial possibilities.

Perkin originally named his dye Tyrian Purple, but it later became commonly known as mauve (from the French for the plant used to make the colour violet). He asked advice of Scottish dye works owner Robert Pullar, who assured him that manufacturing the dye would be well worth it if the colour remained fast (i.e. would not fade) and the cost was relatively low. So, over the fierce objections of his mentor Hofmann, he left college to give birth to the modern chemical industry.

With the help of his father and brother, Perkin set up a factory not far from London. Utilizing the cheap and plentiful coal tar that was an almost unlimited byproduct of London's gas street lighting, the dye works began producing the world’s first synthetically dyed material in 1857. The company received a commercial boost from the Empress Eugenio of France, when she decided the new color flattered her. Very soon, mauve was the necessary shade for all the fashionable ladies in that country. Not to be outdone, England`s Queen Victoria also appeared in public wearing a mauve gown, thus making it all the rage in England as well. The dye was bold and fast, and the public clamoured for more. Perkin went back to the drawing board.

Although Perkins fame was achieved and fortune assured by his first discovery, the chemist continued his research. Among other dyes he developed and introduced were aniline red (1859) and aniline black (1863) and in the late 1860s, Perkin's green. It is important to note that Perkin's synthetic dye discoveries had outcomes far beyond the merely decorative. The dyes also became vital to medical research in many ways. For instance, they were used to stain previously invisible microbes and bacteria,  allowing researchers to identify such bacilli as tuberculosis. cholera, and anthrax. Artificial dyes continue to play a crucial role today. And, in what would have been particularly pleasing to Perkin, their current use is in the search for a vaccine against malaria.

Question 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE    if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE    if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this more than once.

     1. Michael Faraday was the first person to recognize Perkin's ability as a student of chemistry.
     2. Michael Faraday suggested Perkin should enroll in the Royal College of Chemistry.
     3. Perkin employed August Wilhelm Hofmann as his assistant.
     4. Perkin was still young when he made the discovery that made him rich and famous.
     5. The trees from which quinine is derived grow only in South America.
     6. Perkin hoped to manufacture a drug from a coal tar waste product.
     7. Perkin was inspired by the discoveries of the famous scientist Louis Pasteur.

Question 8-13
Answer the Questions below:

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer

Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.

      8. Before Perkin’s discovery, with what group in society was the colour purple associated?
      9. What potential did Perkin immediately understand that his new dye had?
     10. What was the name finally used to refer to the first color Perkin invented?
     11.What was the name of the person Perkin consulted before setting up his own dye works?
     12. In what country did Perkins newly invented colour first become fashionable?
     13. According to the passage, which disease is now being targeted by researchers using synthetic dyes?


Answers: 

1. Not given

The key word that is missing from the passage is "greater". There is no comparison between the spending by residents and visitors, so we have to answer "not given".

2. False

It is NOT easy to show the effect of tourism statistically, because the passage says "difficult for the industry to develop any type of reliable or credible tourism information base".

Extra Task: There are some concepts in the tourism industry that have not been clearly defined and therefore are not usable for both the analysts and decision makers.

3. a: "New method of research"

This is a tricky question as both headings are similar and seem to be correct. However, the paragraph DOESN'T talk about the first study of spoken language. It talks about the first time spoken English has been used when collecting data for dictionaries.

In other words, it's a new way of writing dictionaries, not the first study of spoken language.

4. D
promised to give his answer in an introductory lesson = I’ll prepare a freshman lecture on it

5. A
scientists should master basic scientific principles first = we need to build our grasp of science and technology from the ground up if we are to master it

6. Yes
The writer's opinion is that the lava flows are "even more stunning" than Niagra Falls.

7. Not given
There is no information about whether they are the first 3D images.

8. Not given
There is no information about whether the photos prove the existence of liquid on Mars.

9. No
It is not "more active than ever", it was "once (in the past) far more active".

10. evidence
11. persona
12. distinct
13. adapt
14. surroundings
15. volume
16. body

Notes:

   a. 'Facts' is wrong. We can't write "there IS facts". It would need to be "there ARE facts". "Evidence" is uncountable, so "there is some evidence" is the correct answer.

   b. 'Characteristics' is wrong because of the article "a". We can't write "a different characteristics" - we need a singular noun, so 'persona' is correct.

17. iii
record-setting = the longest migration ever recorded

18. vi
How do migrating Arctic terns manage such a feat? = they’ve battled to survive..... The birds survive the vast journey by dipping down to the sea surface to catch fish and other food as they travel..... constantly on the move..... They have to flap all the time

19. iv
Other incredible animal migrations = the bar-tailed godwit..... whales..... leatherback turtles and some dragonflies also travel

20. True
21. True
22. Not given

Practice test:
1.FALSE
2.NOT GIVEN
3.FALSE
4.TRUE
5.NOT GIVEN
6.TRUE
7.NOT GIVEN
8.(the/only)rich
9.commercial(possibilities)
10.mauve (was/is)
11.(Robert)Pullar
12.(in) France
13.malaria (is)

 

Biên tập: Ce Phan