Câu hỏi IELTS Speaking part 3 dạng Comparing (So sánh) và hướng dẫn cách trả lời
Một trong số những loại câu hỏi hay gặp nhất trong phần IELTS Speaking part3, câu hỏi Comparing thường là câu được hỏi thứ nhất hay thứ hai. Bài viết này sẽ hướng dẫn các loại câu hỏi chi tiết trong phần này, hướng dẫn cách trả lời qua các câu ví dụ minh họa. Cuối bài viết là phần thực hành với các gợi ý cho sẵn.
Có một cách chia tương đối những câu hỏi này thành 3 loại:
- So sánh về thời gian
Are houses nowadays, the same as houses 30 years ago in your country?
- So sánh về nhóm xã hội
Do men and women like the same types of books?
Do old and young people like the same holidays?
- So sánh về địa lý
Are houses in North Vietnam the same as houses in South Vietnam?
Hãy xem xét ví dụ sau:
Examiner: Do men and women like the same hobbies?
Student: I think men and women like different hobbies, for example men are fond of many types of sporting activities such as football and basketball. Also they prefer things like watching action movies and going to bars, but women like hobbies such as shopping, watching TV, singing KTV and chatting online.
Đây là một câu trả lời chưa đạt vì chỉ chú trọng nội dung. Khó mà thấy được ngôn ngữ so sánh trong câu trả lời này. Câu trả lời tốt hơn sẽ giống câu sau:
Sample answer: Well obviously there are a number of clear differences. However, I guess that the most significant would be that men tend to prefer sporting activities such as football or basketball. Whereas in contrast women prefer things like shopping for clothes. In addition to this, another possible distinction might be that men usually like watching films: while on the other hand, women are more likely to prefer watching soap operas on TV.
Câu trả lời bắt đầu với một linking phrase:
- Well obviously…
- Well undoubtedly…
- Well clearly…
- Well unmistakably…
- Sure, without a doubt…
Có một số sự khác biệt:
- There are a number of underlying differences here.
- There are a variety of possible differences here.
- There are a range of potential distinctions here.
Điều đầu tiên là:
- However, I guess that the most significant would be that…
- Though I suppose that the most obvious would be that…
- But I would say the most fundamental would be that…
Phát triển ý trên, ví dụ “…men tend to prefer…” với những từ đơn giản: especially, particularly, in fact, such as, for example, specifically.
Cấu trúc so sánh đầu tiên:
- Whereas on the other hand…
- On the contrary…
- Though quite the opposite…
Giờ thì là khác biệt thứ hai:
- In addition…
- On top of this…
- As well as this…
- After that…
Còn một khác biệt quan trọng khác:
- …a second key distinction would be that…
- …a subsequent contrast could be that…
- …a further distinction might be that…
Tiếp tục xây dựng câu trả lời như ý đầu:
- While on the other hand…
- Then again, in opposition…
Hai khác biệt là đã đủ cho một câu trả lời IELTS Speaking part 3 và có thể giúp cho bạn đạt số điểm cao nhất trong phần thi này. Bên dưới đây là một câu ví dụ khác về trường hợp so sánh thời gian: quá khứ & hiện tại
Examiner: Are there any differences between the types of people who were seen as celebrities in the past and those who are celebrities nowadays?
Sample answer: Yes, I think there have been some big changes in the types of people who become famous. In the past, before the invention of television, I suppose there were very few national or international celebrities; maybe kings and queens, military, political and religious leaders were the only household names. With the advent of TV and radio, performers such as actors and musicians became more well-known. However, we now seem to have a completely new breed of celebrity as a result of 'reality' television programmes; these are people who don't really have any special skills as performers, but who are famous for just being
Hãy xem xét các từ được gạch chân và để ý tới thì được sử dụng trong các câu nói. Đây là phần đặc biết chú ý khi giám khảo hỏi các câu hỏi so sánh giữa quá khứ và hiện tại.
Thêm một câu ví dụ nữa về trường hợp so sánh giữa hiện tại và quá khứ
Examiner: What is the difference between houses built in the past and now?
Sample Answer: Well obviously there are quite a lot of dissimilarities between houses built a long time ago and those recently built. To begin with, these days, completely different materials such as fire-retardant, sound and noise proof are used to build modern houses to provide people better living conditions. Additionally, house designs have changed drastically over time. Admittedly, old houses look more picturesque, having their own characters, while those built recently appear to be dull as they are mass produced most of the time. However, to make up for the lack of characters, they have the modern conveniences so necessary nowadays.
Giám khảo sẽ hỏi thêm các câu hỏi khác liên quan tới câu hỏi ở trên. Ví dụ như:
Examiner: What are the differences in sizes of houses? Why?
Sample Answer: In terms of size, modern houses are certainly smaller than what they used to be. This is partly due to the ever-growing population, making it much harder to own a large piece of land, and partly because of the decreasing size of the average family in most parts of the world. People have fewer children per family, and unlike in the past, when several generations shared a house, today young people move out as soon as they can afford to have their own place.
Hãy thực hành trả lời các câu hỏi bên dưới với những từ khóa được gợi ý và áp dụng những cách tiếp cận các cấu trúc câu so sánh như đã hướng dẫn ở trên:
1. What’s the difference between things made by hand and things made by machines?
- can be made quickly compared to its handmade version
- provide nearly identical products
- has cheaper prices
- requires a lot more labour intensive and is generally associated with high end products
- no two handmade products are identical
- tends to last much longer and perform better over time
2. Which do you prefer eating, fast or home-made food?
- Reasons to choose fast food
- time saving
- convenient and easy to find in many places
- provide a variety of choices
- Reasons to NOT choose home-made food
- time consuming
-------------------------- (Chọn trả lời theo hướng trên, hoặc bên dưới)
- Reasons to choose home-made food
- much healthier than fast food (natural and fresh ingredients, appropriate portion size)
- cost saving
- Reasons to NOT choose fast food
- usually uses low quality ingredients
- most are high in sugar, sodium, fat,…
3. Which do you prefer reading, online or printed newspaper?
- easy access to a wide variety of newspapers published online
- online newspaper page gives more freedom to find some additional information
- newsprint version does not contain any advertisements which may distract reader’s attention
- newspapers usually give an opportunity to choose from different languages
- online newspapers give an opportunity to discuss the topic on forum, e-mail other readers or editors themselves
- online articles may be renovated or improved, unlike printed ones
4. What has changed in people’s lives in your country for the past few decades?
- be able to travel longer distances in a short period of time
(past: planes = expensive means of transport -> not easily accessible
now: availability of fast, comfortable cars and cheaper travels by plane)
- be able to work more comfortably
(past: human do almost all the work
now: computers and other machines do most of the difficult and dangerous tasks)
- have better living conditions
(now: available bathrooms and running water in many houses
household appliances like fridge, TV sets or vacuum cleaners no longer considered luxurious goods)
- easier access to education
(past: fewer schools, poorer education’s quality
now: most educational materials can be found in the Internet)
5. Are there any differences between the types of people who were seen as celebrities in the past and those who are celebrities nowadays?
- past (before TV): very few national or international celebrities
(household names = kings and queens, military, political and religious leaders)
- now (after the advent of TV, radio and the availability of the Internet):
-> performers such as actors and musicians became more well-known
-> a completely new breed of celebrity as a result of ‘reality’ shows (who are famous for just being themselves)
Sưu tầm & Biên soạn: Ce Phan