Đây là bài học nằm trong chủ đề Stepping back in time (Ngược dòng thời gian) mà Ce Phan đang biên soạn và giới thiệu tới các học viên IELTS. Đây là dạng bài mô tả quá trình làm mòn đá (cliff erosion) và làm xói mòn đất (erosion of a headland) tại những nơi gần nước. Đây cũng là một trong những đề bài thường gặp trong các bài học cũng như bài thi IELTS Writing Task 1.
I. Look at the diagram in the Writing task below.
1. In one sentence, say what the diagram shows, using your own words
2. Decide on the following:
a. the key stages in the process
b. the changes in the process, and how they could be compared
c. some useful vacabulary for the introduction and the description of the diagram.
3. Discuss how you would organise your answer into paragraphs.
4. Decide what you would write in your overview
The diagram below illusatres how fossils were exposed beneath a cliff as a result of coastal erosion.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisions where relevant.
II. Re-order these sentences so that they produce a sample answer for the task in exercise I. Then divide the answer into paragraphs.
a. Conversly, at high tide, the waves sometimes reached half-way up the cliff wall, beating on it with some force.
b. Meanwhile, the overhanging cliff at the top cracked, creating a dangerous area beneath it.
c. This meant that stones and boulders fell into the sea, and the cliff slowly retreated, exposing previously buried rock at low tide.
d. Clearly, the fossils would have remained buried and the coastine unchanged if it had not been for the action of the sea.
e. The diagram shows the changes that took place in a cliff face as a result of coastal erosion, and how this lead to the discovery of fossils.
f. As the waves hit the lowver part of the cliff more frequently, this area eroded more quickyly and became a hollow in the cliff wall where fossils could be found.
g. Eventually, the power of these waves loosened and wore away the rock.
h. At one time, the cliff stood much further out and, at low tide, the sea water did not touch the base of the rock.
III. Underline the words and phrases in Exercise II that the writer uses to:
a. Mark the stages in the process
b. compare aspects of the process.
IV. The writer uses participle clauses to express consequences. This is useful when describing processes and also helps build more complex sentences.
... the waves sometimes reached haft-way up the cliff wall, beating on it with some force.
1. What is the subject of beating?
2. what do you notice about the punctuation?
3. Underline two more examples of this use in the sample answer. What is the subject of the -ing verb forms in these sentences?
V. Use participle clauses to link these pairs of sentences.
1. Archaelogy has become, a highly computerised science. This has transformed our abiity to analyse findings.
2. Fossil specimens can be CT-scanned. This reveals how creatures moved and walked.
3. The fossil could not be removed from the rock. This makes it hard to analyse it.
4. The wind will travel across the beach. This carries the sand to different parts of the coast.
5. Large rocks are thrown against the cliff wall. This produces a bed pebbles and small stones.
VI. Write your answer to the task in at least 150 words
The diagras below show the stages in the erosion of a headland.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Nguồn: Complete IELTS
Biên soạn: Ce Phan