Bài viết liên quan:

Praphrasing là một trong những kỹ thuật quan trọng trong kỹ năng Writing. Trong bài thi IELTS Writing, thí sinh sẽ áp dụng kỹ năng này không chỉ trong câu đầu tiên trong phần mở bài của cả Task 1 và 2, mà còn sử dụng nó ở mặt này hay mặt khác trong các câu văn diễn giải ở phần thân bài cũng như kết bài. 

Trong bài học "Kỹ năng trình bày theo cách khác", Ce Phan đã đề cập các bước từ đơn giản đến nâng cao trong các câu văn chuyển đổi từ dạng này sang dạng khác. Tiếp đến bài này sẽ là những phần thực hành riêng biệt cho từng kỹ thuật paraphrasing trước khi làm thêm các bài tập kết hợp khác trong bài tập thực hành nâng cao trong bài kế tiếp. 

PARAPHRASING TECHNIQUES

Technique 1: Paraphrase with Synonyms (viết lại với từ đồng nghĩa)

For example:

​            More than half of the women who attended the one-day meeting were in business with their spouses.

Possible answer:

            The majority of the women who went to the one-day meeting were in business with their husband

   1. Approximately 30,000 students may be assisted by the proposed “free lunch” program.

   2. With the development of flash memory cards, the market for portable music players jumped sharply.

   3. Although the coach’s strategy was a little dangerous, the team was successful.

   4. Therefore, the effect was an increase in student examination results.

   5. In addition, a strong typhoon is expected to batter the coast over the next few days.

   6. The expenditure needed to combat climate change will require changes to the federal government’s budget.

   7. The engineer must judge how much dynamite to use according to the volume of material to be removed from the tunnel.

   8. Two of the students were expelled for violating the school’s “no fighting” policy.

Possible answers.

1. About 30,000 students may be helped by the planned “free lunch” program.

Synonyms:

- approximately: almost,  generally, relatively, roughly, about, around

- assist: aid, boost, support, help 

- proposed: suggested, expected, scheduled, planned  

2. With the invention of ash memory cards, the demand for portable music players increased significantly.

Synonyms:

- development: invention, advancement, evolution, improvement 

- market: demand , interest, need, sale 

- jumped sharply: increased significantly, expanded remarkably, hightened markedably 

3. Even though the coach’s plan was risky, the team was successful.

Synonyms:

Although: Even though, despite , despite the fact that 

- strategy: plan, blueprint, method 

- a little dangerous: risky, unsafe

4. Consequently, the result was an increase in student test scores.

Synonyms:

Therefore: consequently, hence, then, so

- effect (n): result, consequence, ramification, outcome 

- examination results: test scores, test grades, test marks 

5. Furthermore, a strong hurricane is expected to hit the coast over the next few days.

Synonyms:

In addition: furthermore, moreover, additionaly, besides 

- typhoon: hurricane, storm, tornado, cyclone 

- to batter: hit, beat 

6. The money needed to fight climate change will require changes to the federal government’s financial plans.

Synonyms:

expenditure:  money, 

- to combat: to fight, 

- budget: financial plans, financial allocation 

7. The engineer must decide how much dynamite to use depending on the amount of material to be removed from the tunnel.

Synonyms:

judge: decide, 

- according: depending , basing 

- volume: amount of 

9. Two students were kicked out of school for breaking the school’s “no fighting” rule.

Synonyms:

- expelled: kicked out of; 

- violating: breaking 

- policy: rule 


 

Technique 2: Paraphrase by Changing Active to Passive (chuyển câu chủ động thành bị động)

For example: ​ A tornado destroyed the house.
Change to:
​     The house was destroyed by a tornado.

 

For example: ​ The doctor had treated hundreds of patients before he received his medical license.

Change to:      Hundreds of patients had been treated by the doctor before he received his medical license.

 

   1. My mother washes the floor every Saturday.

   2. The policewoman is delivering the food to an orphanage.

   3. That tall man in the corner mailed our package.

   4. The professor was helping a student when the bell sounded.

   5. Millions of tourists have visited the Eiffel Tower.

   6. John and George have been filling the on-line orders.

   7. Jim had been tutoring the twins for six months before he decided to go to Tibet.

   8. The green team will finish the new truck design by next week.

   9. In 2011, the columnist is going to be writing a book about Albert Einstein.

   10. Next month, John will write a story about European hockey players.

   11. My son will have earned enough high school credits by next semester.

   12. The French professors used to teach students in the East Building.

   13. My teachers would always assign spring break homework.

   14. We all knew the team would finish the project on time.

   15. I thought Jennifer was going to make the travel arrangements.

 

Possible answers.

  1. The floor is washed by my mother every Saturday.
  2. The food is being delivered to the orphanage by the policewoman.
  3. Our package was mailed by that tall man in the corner.
  4. A student was being helped by the professor when the bell sounded.
  5. The Eiffel Tower has been visited by millions of tourists.
  6. The online orders have been filled by John and George.
  7. The twins had been tutored for six months by Jim before he decided to go to Tibet.
  8. The new truck design will be finished by the green team by next week.
  9. A book about Albert Einstein is going to be written by the columnist in 2011.
  10. A story about European hockey players will be written by John next month.
  11. Enough high school credits will have been earned by my son by next semester.
  12. Students used to be taught by the French professors in the East Building.
  13. Spring break homework would always be assigned by my teachers.
  14. We all knew the project would be finished on time by the team.
  15. I thought the travel arrangements were going to be made by Jennifer.

 

Technique 3: Paraphrase by Changing Nouns to Verbs (Thay đổi loại từ: danh từ - động từ)

For example: You have to give us your decision by tomorrow.

Better sentence:  You have to decide by tomorrow.

 

For example: Researchers conducted an investigation into the problem.

Better sentence: Researchers investigated the problem.

  1. This essay gives an analysis of the problem of climate change and describes a potential solution.
  2. The Korean President did not give an explanation for the pardon of his business friend.
  3. Our class debate concerned the issue of nuclear weapons.
  4. We performed a review of the company’s annual reports.
  5. The school club of actors did a performance of Romeo and Juliet on the second of June.
  6. There is a need for further study of this Master’s program.
  7. It is necessary for political candidates to give a good performance during a TV debate.
  8. There is a need in our city for an assessment of the recycling system.
  9. It is my hope that students will use this material.
  10. The police conducted an investigation of the robbery.

Suggested Answers

  1. This essay analyzes climate change and describes a potential solution.
  2. The Korean President did not explain the pardon of his business friend.
  3. Our class debated the issue of nuclear weapons.
  4. We reviewed the company’s annual reports.
  5. The school’s acting club performed Romeo and Juliet on June 2nd.
  6. This Master’s program should be studied. (hoặc: There is a need to study this Master’s program.)
  7. Political candidates need to perform well during a TV debate.
  8. Our city needs to assess the recycling system.
  9. I hope my students will use this material.
  10. The police investigated the robbery.

 

Technique 4: paraphrase by sentence combining (Viết lại câu bằng cách kết hợp các câu)
 

Part A: Combine Sentences with FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Example:      I like grilled pork. I don’t like spicy rice cake.
Paraphrase: I like grilled pork, but I don’t like spicy rice cake.

  1. Jennifer was good at literature. Her sister had trouble with writing.
  2. We can go to the new chicken restaurant. We can order in.
  3. That movie scares me. I don’t want to watch the movie.
  4. We passed through passport control. The four of us boarded the airplane.
  5. The zoo’s only elephant was starving. It had not eaten since last week.
  6. I really disliked that teacher. I still wanted to take his class.
  7. I will not see you today. I will not see you tomorrow.

Suggested Answers

  1. Jennifer was good at science, but her sister had trouble with writing.
  2. We can go to the new chicken restaurant, or we can order in.
  3. That movie scares me, so I don’t want to watch it.
  4. We passed through passport control, and the four of us boarded the airplane.
  5. The zoo’s only elephant was starving, for it had not eaten since last week.
  6. I really disliked that teacher, yet I still wanted to take his class.
  7. I will not see you today, nor will I see you tomorrow.

Part B: Combine Sentences with Joining Words: after, although, because, before, since, unless, while

Example:      She has known him for two years. They are not close friends.

Paraphrase:  Although she has known him for two years, they are not close friends.

  1. I have no money. I can’t go to the play.
  2. Polar bears are cute. The mothers are dangerous if they think you are threatening their cubs.
  3. Some university classes are challenging. Others classes are boring.
  4. The typhoon ended on Thursday. Everybody went to the beach to examine the damage.
  5. My pet has fleas. It needs a bath.
  6. The party ended. We went to the beach to watch the sunset.
  7. You must plan your time wisely. Otherwise, you won’t be able to study for all nine exams next month.

Suggested Answers

  1. Since I have no money, I can’t go to the play.
  2. Although polar bears are cute, the mothers are dangerous if they think you are threatening their cubs.
  3. Some university classes are challenging, while others classes are boring.
  4. After the typhoon ended on Thursday, everybody went to the beach to examine the damage.
  5. My pet needs a bath because it has fleas.
  6. Before the party ended, we went to the beach to watch the sunset.
  7. Unless you plan your time wisely, you won’t be able to study for all nine exams next month.

 

Part C: Relative clauses: who, which and that.

Questions

  1. Jim lives in Ottawa. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
  2. Viruses are dangerous programs. They usually enter a computer secretly.
  3. Laura is a wealthy woman. She rarely worries about the cost of things.
  4. Toronto is a cosmopolitan city. It is home for nationalities all across the globe.
  5. The angry teacher scolded a student. The student was bleeding.
  6. I bought a second-hand car from a local dealer. It turned out to be a lemon.
  7. I saw the photograph on the wall. It was taken at Angkor Wat.

Suggested Answers

  1. Jim lives in Ottawa, which is the capital of Canada.
  2. Viruses are dangerous programs that usually enter a computer secretly.
  3. Laura is a wealthy woman who rarely worries about the cost of things.
  4. Toronto is a cosmopolitan city which is home for nationalities all across the globe.
  5. The angry teacher scolded a student who was bleeding.
  6. I bought a second-hand car from a local dealer that turned out to be a lemon.
  7. I saw the photograph on the wall which was taken at Angkor Wat.

Part D: Appositives: giải thích nghĩa của danh từ bằng mệnh đề (sử dụng dấu phẩy)

Questions

  1. My aunt lost her favorite ring. It as a gift from her sister.
  2. The Han River ows through Seoul. It is South Korea’s second longest river.
  3. The rst man in space was from Russia. He was Yuri Gagarin.
  4. I sat beside Mr. Black. Mr. Black is a local prosecutor.
  5. Janet’s dog sat under a tree and panted. Her dog is a mutt.
  6. Dr. Jones loves to bake bread. He is a prize-winning baker.
  7. Mr. James is the CEO of a venture software company. He is a good friend of mine.

Suggested Answers

  1. My aunt lost her favorite ring, a gift from her sister.
  2. The Han, South Korea’s second longest river, flows through Seoul.
  3. The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, was from Russia.
  4. I sat beside Mr. Black, a local prosecutor.
  5. Janet’s dog, a mutt, sat under a tree and panted.
  6. Dr. Jones, a prize-winning baker, loves to bake bread.
  7. Mr. James, the CEO of a venture software company, is a good friend of mine.

 

Technique 5: Paraphrase with Word Definitions (viết lại câu bằng cách định nghĩa các thuật ngữ trong câu)
For example: The judge’s verdict surprised everyone in the courtroom.

​Paraphrse:     The judge’s final decision surprised everyone in the courtroom.

  1. Home buyers with cash can exploit the decline in housing prices.
  2. Our country’s gross domestic product has increased by 3% since last year when measured on a per capita basis.
  3. Lifting heavy cartons all day will aggravate your sore back.
  4. Police investigators used advanced forensics to identify the culprits.
  5. Most economic analysts predict the financial crisis will persist into the new year.
  6. Young people in Asian countries are disinterested in performing holiday rites.
  7. Some TV commentators have been criticized for a bias against the president’s proposals.
  8. Strong demand for crude oil combined with corporate greed have created negative consequences for the residents of New Orleans.
  9. Political scientists who study regional development indicate the gap between rich and poor countries is growing.
  10. The board of education promised reforms though most parents are skeptical about the board members’ motives.

Possible Answers

  1. Home buyers with cash can take advantage of the drop in housing prices.
  2. Our country’s economic output has increased by 3% since last year when measured on a per person basis.
  3. Lifting heavy boxes all day will make your sore back worse.
  4. Police investigators used advanced scientific techniques to collect evidence to identify the suspected offenders.
  5. Most economic analysts believe the financial crisis will continue into the new year.
  6. Young people in Asian countries are disinterested in observing traditional holiday customs and practices.
  7. Some TV commentators have been criticized for a prejudiced opinion towards the president’s new ideas.
  8. High consumption of crude oil combined with corporate greed have created disastrous results for the residents of New Orleans.
  9. Political scientists who study regional development suggest the disparity in wealth between rich and poor countries is growing.
  10. The board of education promised positive changes though most parents have suspicions about the board members’ intentions.

 

Biên soạn: Ce Phan