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Hướng dẫn học tốt Unit 16 - Books, writing and signs (Phần 1)

Đây là bài hướng dẫn đầu tiên trong một loạt 3 bài mà Ce Phan sẽ gửi tới các bạn. Bài này sẽ tập trung nhiều vào kỹ năng Đọc (Reading).

Chủ đề bài họcBooks, writing and signs

Mục tiêu bài học:

- Reading: dạng câu hỏi True/ False/ Not Given

- Listening: dạng câu hỏi điền theo form mẫu

- Vocabulary: từ vựng liên quan tới Books và Writing

- Grammar


I. Khởi động (Warming up)

1. Mô tả ý nghĩa của từng biển báo

1. This is a road sign. It's white with a red circle round the outside. It shows a car and a motorbike. The red circle means that something is prohibited - no motor vehicles are allowed to enter the street.
2. This is a thick black line forming a particular pattern, and it means and. The symbol is called an 'ampersand'.
3. This is another road sign. It's a triangle pointing upwards, surrounded by a think red line. it shoes a man with a spade and a pile of something that might be earth, sand or stones. It means that there are road works going on, so it's a warning to drivers to be careful.
4. This sign shows a dogs on white background, surrounded by red circle, and with a red diagonal line across it. it means dogs are banned from this place, which might be a park or beach (It's Canadian sign)
5.  This is a square sign with a dark background. The meaning isn't very clear, because the white object in the sign could symbolise a castle or a pair of binoculars (In fact it's binoculars, and the sign means this is a good place for watching wildlife. It's American sign)
6. This is a squre sign, with a white pattern on it that I think represents a snowflaske. I'm not sure, but it mighr mean that this is a good area for winter sports (It is Again, It's an American sign.)
7. This is aninternational sign, consisting of two horizontal lines of equal length, one above the other, and with a small space between them.  It means equals, and is used in maths.
8. This is another road sign, and it's triangular, which means it's a warning. The black exclamation mark prbably means that you're going to have a surprise, so you should be careful. It's warning of danger. 

Trả lời một số câu hỏi liên quan:

Do you need to understand a particular language to understand them?

All these signs are intended to be ease to understand, whatever language you speak. So "&" means the same in all languages, whatever the word for and is. Most of the signs represent sentences, for example 4- "You musn't bring a dog here" or 5- "this a good place for watching wildlife". but the sentences could be in any language.

How easily can they be understood by someone seeing them for the first time?

It isn't obvious that red circles mean that something is banned or that triangles are warning signs. Some of the things that are shown are clear, like the motornike and the dog, but the binoculars and snowflake are more diffucult to interpret.

Can you think of ways in which they could be interpreted wrongly?

You might think that examples 1 means you can drive here. Some people think 3 shows a man having trouble with an umbrella, so it could mean it's very windy. You might interpret the binoculars as showing the gate to a castle. 


2. Thực hành đọc skimming

Yêu cầu của phần này là đọc lướt nhanh nội dung bài đọc và xem xét xem 8 loại ký hiệu và biển báo trên thuộc nguôn ngữ tượng hình Hy Lạp hay chữ viết của Trung Quốc hay là chữ cái Latin

- Chữ tượng hình (hieroglyphs) gồm có 1,3,4,5,và 6 biểu thị và cho thấy các đối tượng trong thế giới thực tế.

- Ký hiệu số 7 là biểu tượng cho sự công bằng

- 2,8 là ký hiệu của chữ "and" và "dấu chấm than" (exclamation) là ký hiệu của tiếng Latin


3. Thực hành Scanning

Thông thường dạng câu hỏi kiểm tra khả năng Scaning bao gồm 3 sự lựa chọn, thỉnh thoảng cũng yêu cầu với 4 sự lựa chọn. 

Câu ví dụ chọn B vì trong bài chỉ đế cập tới thông tin liên quan tới Chinese character. Không chọn C mặc dù trong thực tế bao gồm của Egyptain hierolyphs và Chinese character. 

Trả lời:

1.C - Chinese ... Like many Egyptain hieroglyphs, the signs were originally pictures, and gradually became more abstract (dòng 31-34)
2. B - Chinese characters are used ... in the unrelated languages of Japanese, Korean and, until the 20th century, Vietnamese. (lines 36-39)
3. A- others indicate sounds (dòng 14-15)
4.B- The writing system consists of characters representing words, sections of words ... (dòng 34-35)
5. D 
6.A - The third agroup are used to distinguish between two words that are otherwise indentical: carve and retreat are represented by the same hieroglyph, but a knife symbol is added to show when the former meaning is intended, and pair of legs to indicate the latter (dòng 15-20).


7. Thực hành scanning với dạng câu hỏi True/False/Not Given

Trả lời:

7 TRUE - A totally new development in writing appeared in the Middle East about 3.700 years ago, when Egyptian hieroglyphs were well established. This was the North Semitic alphabet (dòng 48 - 51)
8. FALSE - This the North Semitic alphabet, which evolved in Palestine and Syria. The Phienicians ... adapted it to form their own alphabet. (Dòng 50-54)
9. TRUE - This is turn spread into northen Africa to become the writing system of the Arabs, and north-west to Greece (dòng 54-56)
10 NOT GIVEN-  The Greek letter were further modified to become the Cyrillic alphabets of Russia (dòng 57-58). Không có nghĩa là những ngôn ngữ đó có liên quan, mặc dù đề là dạng chữ cái.
11. NOT GIVEN- While most alphabets contain between 20 and 30 leter, the smallest, used in the Solomon Islands, contains only 11. Khmer, the official language of Campodia, has the largest alphabet, with 74 letters (dòng 68-73) Không đề cập gì đến số lượng chữ cái và số lượng chữ
12. FALSE - There is rarely great consistency between spelling and pronunciation (dòng 77-79)
13 TRUE - The writing system has not kept pace with changes in prnuciation over the centuries (dòng 81-83)



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